A lifelong disease that causes high blood sugar-level, as it affects the way the body converts food into energy. (*1,*2)
As many as 425 million people around the globe have diabetes (*4)
Approximately one-third of all people with diabetes do not know they have the disease (*5)
There are two major types of diabetes, known as type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes (*6)
Early diagnosis and proper management is the first step for living well with diabetes (*6)
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes can be drastically reduced with physical activity and a healthy diet(*6)
|Normal Person||Diabetic Person|
|STEP 1||Food eaten by you is turned into sugar (glucose)||Food eaten by you is turned into sugar (glucose)|
|STEP 2||Pancreas (an organ near the stomach) makes a hormone called insulin||Pancreas (an organ near the stomach) does not make sufficient insulin or body is unable to use it properly|
|STEP 3||Insulin helps sugar enter into cells of your body||Sugar accumulates in your blood|
|STEP 4||Sugar is converted into energy||Leads to diabetes|
Glucose or Sugar3
Read articles on how to manage diabetes while eating out, fasting and exercising
4. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas - 8th Edition. Available from: https://www.diabetesatlas.org/across-the-globe.html. As accessed on: 27/6/2018.
5. Joslin Diabetes Center. Ten Things You Might Not Know About Diabetes. Available from: https://www.joslin.org/info/10_Things_You_Might_Not_Know_About_Diabetes.html. As accessed on: 19/6/2018.
6. World Health Organization. 10 facts on diabetes (2016). Available from: https://www.who.int/features/factfiles/diabetes/en/. As accessed on: 19/6/2018.
7. Diabetes in Canada. Types of diabetes. Available from: https://www.diabetes.ca/about-diabetes/types-of-diabetes. As accessed on: 19/6/2018.
8. National Health Service. Gestational diabetes. Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gestational-diabetes/. Last reviewed: 5/8/2016. As accessed on: 19/6/2018.
Thyroid disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, are common among Indian patients.1 Unnikrishnan et al. have recently reported that hypothyroidism is prevalent in about 10.95% of adult urban population in India. Further, the prevalence is higher among females and elderly individuals. It is also estimated that subclinical hypothyroidism is prevalent in about 8% population.2 A cross sectional study by Marwaha et al reported 25% prevalence of Subclinical hypothyroidism in Dyslipidemia patients.3 Thyroid disorders have significant impact on lipids as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have reported that overt hypothyroidism as well as subclinical hypothyroidism may cause significant lipid abnormalities.4-7 Hence, effective screening and management for thyroid dysfunction is critical in all patients with dyslipidemia.4
Effects of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism8
Thyroid hormones regulate a wide range of metabolic parameters and have significant effect on lipoprotein metabolism thereby influencing the overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Following are the effects of thyroid hormones on lipid metabolism.
Association between lipid profiles and thyroid function
Analysis of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism
Asranna et al. found that patients with subclinical hypothyroidism exhibited higher mean total cholesterol and mean LDL cholesterol levels as compared to controls (Figure 1). They concluded that dyslipidemia is more common among patients with subclinical hypothyroidism than that among controls.6
Analysis of patients with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism
Sharma et al. evaluated the lipid profiles and thyroid function in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (n=30) and overt hypothyroidism (n=30) as compared to that in healthy controls (n=30). The findings of the study are given in Table 1. TSH showed statistically significant correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in patients with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism.7
Role of thyroxine treatment
Effect on lipid metabolism
Asranna et al. observed a significant reduction in mean total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with 3 month of thyroxine treatment.6
Effect on cardiovascular events
Razvi et al. found that thyroxine treatment was associated with fewer incidence of ischemic heart disease in younger patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (4.2 vs. 6.5%; multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.39–0.95; p=0.02; (Figure 2).9
ITS Guideline Recommendations on Screening and Management of Dyslipidemia